Antibiotics for Laryngitis & Angina
Antibiotics for laryngitis in adults and children are prescribed for bacterial lesions of the laryngeal mucosa. In the absence of adequate treatment may develop complications, namely – neck phlegm, laryngeal stenosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, etc.
Laryngitis the patient complains of discomfort or pain in the throat, dryness and tickle in the throat, cough, fever.
The disease develops in contact with pathogenic bacteria from the environment through the upper respiratory tract, as well as with blood flow from acute and chronic foci of infection of neighboring organs. This is facilitated by local or General decrease in immunity, somatic diseases of the respiratory, digestive and endocrine systems, bad habits, surgical interventions and laryngeal injuries.
Macrolides have a bacteriostatic action primarily. Their activity extends to gram-positive cocci (streptococci, staphylococci) and intracellular bacteria (Mycoplasma, chlamydia).
At the heart of the development of acute inflammation of the larynx is a violation of the outflow of lymph and changes in local water metabolism. Edema of the mucous membrane can be in any part of the body. The rapid spread of inflammation causes acute laryngeal stenosis and often threatens the patient's life.
Treatment of laryngitis with antibiotics
Antibiotics for laryngitis are prescribed for acute bacterial form, exacerbation of chronic course or prolonged, complicated course of the disease.
What kind of drug is needed, only the doctor decides, depending on the alleged or detected bacterial agent. To do this, before treatment, he takes a smear from the oropharynx and directly from the mucous membrane of the larynx to microscopic, bacteriological and, if necessary, cytological examination.
It bacteriological culture allows you to specify the type of the causative agent and define its sensitivity to antibiotics. The readiness of the analysis is on average from 6 to 14 days, so the decision on the appointment of systemic antibiotic therapy is made on the basis of clinical data and the patient's condition.
The names of antibiotics in laryngitis may be different, and the active substance – the same. These drugs are called generics. For example, drugs Sumamed and Azithromycin.
Most often, antibiotics are prescribed in the form of tablets, less often – in emulsions with hydrocortisone.
Before use, make a special test to exclude the presence of an allergic reaction to the drug.
Protected penicillins are highly effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, gonococci, diphtheria Bacillus.
Augmentin and amoxiclave are protected by penicillin Augmentin, as amoxiclave, is a combined broad-spectrum antibiotic (amoxicillin) with an inhibitor of beta-lactamase (clavulanic acid). Drugs containing clavulanic acid have a destructive effect on microorganisms resistant to other penicillins and cephalosporins.
Augmentin is active against corinebacteria, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Hemophilus, gonococci, bacteroids, fusobacteria. Depending on the chosen dosage, the drug should be taken 2 or 3 times a day. Augmentin has low toxicity and is usually well tolerated.
In the absence of adequate treatment may develop stenosis of the larynx, bronchitis, pneumonia, mediastinitis, neck phlegmons, sepsis.
The use of antibiotics should be treated with great responsibility. Effective and rapid treatment of laryngitis is possible with timely access to a specialist.
The angina is the term acute tonsillitis is most often the condition affects the amygdala by type:
- lacunar angina — film yellowish plaque covering the entire surface or located in the gaps
- follicular angina — on the tonsils appear nodules -white=yellow, small, translucent through the mucosa.
Viral sore throat
The most common cause of inflammation and swelling of the pharynx is viral infections - influenza, SARS (what is different), but to angina after SARS leads soprofit coccal flora, giving purulent raids. Viral angina also includes herpes, enterovirus, adenovirus (see treatment of enterovirus infection).
Bacterial sore throat
According to statistics, bacterial angina is caused by the following bacteria: 10 percent – Streptococcus together with Staphylococcus, 10 percent – only Staphylococcus, 80 percent – hemolytic Streptococcus. Less likely to affect the throat infections such as gonorrhea (in women) and chlamydia. Therefore, before prescribing antibiotics for angina in adults, the doctor must determine what caused the inflammation. Angina in children, especially in small, weakened and often ill, is purulent in nature, which manifests itself in the form of follicular angina, lacunar angina. With a positive streptococcal test and if the patient has the following symptoms, the doctor should immediately prescribe antibiotics:
- No runny nose and cough
- High temperature (over 38C)
- Painful and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
- No rash on the body (elimination of scarlet fever)
- Visible plaque on the tonsils, tonsils are very red and enlarged
The basic principle of drug selection is as follows:
- with a light course of tonsillitis, penicillins or macrolides are used;
- severe, complicated form requires the appointment of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones.
If the pathological process is provoked by viruses or fungi, the use of antibacterial drugs will not bring results.
Penicillins based on amoxicillin
One of the oldest groups of antibiotics, so a number of microorganisms have developed resistance to active ingredients.
However, to this day it is the drugs of choice in 90% of cases of purulent streptococcal and staphylococcal angina. Title: "Amoxicillin", "Amazin", "Ospamoks", "Flemoksin Soljutab", "Hiconcil", "Ecobol".
Protected penicillins (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) are prescribed in the case of resistance (resistance) of bacteria to amoxicillin. Name: "Amoxiclav", "Arlet", "Augmentin", "Anklav", "Anklav", "Repicla, Fiber", "Flameclaw", "Ecoclub".
Antibiotics of a wide range of actions: "Cefodox", "Durate", "Biotoxin" can be used in case of intolerance to drugs penicillin.
Doctors recommend the use of "Cefaclor", "Cephalexin", "Cefazolin" to patients with allergic reactions and resistance to amoxicillin and other substances from the penicillin group.
Recommended if the use of penicillins, including combined with clavulanic acid ("Augmentin", "Flemoklav"), do not produce the expected therapeutic effect.
Macrolides are active against streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, in high concentrations accumulate at the site of an inflammatory reaction.
In most cases, 1 week of use of the drug is enough for a complete victory over angina.
Doctors recommend taking medications based on:
Azithromycin (Sumamed, Azitrox, Azithromycin, Z-factor»); clarithromycin ("Clarithromycin", "Klitrosen", "Claritin", "Clarica", "Keramin", "Klacid", "Klerimed»); josamycin ("Vilprafen", "Wilprafen Solutab»); roxithromycin (the"Kitazin", "Remora", "Recepten", "Roxihexal", and "Roxithromycin", "Rocksolid").
Among the shortcomings of this group of drugs can be identified less gentle effect on the digestive system: often reported the development of stool disorders, nausea and other adverse reactions.
"Ofloxacin", "Levofloxacin", "Moxifloxacin", "Ciprofloxacin", "Sparfloxacin" — powerful and most effective antibiotics for angina in tablets today.
They allow to cope with severe forms of angina and are most easily tolerated by patients. Destroy almost all kinds of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as atypical microorganisms.
However, there is one caveat: only this group of drugs can kill Koch's wand (the causative agent of tuberculosis), if the bacterium develops resistance to an antibiotic — this will mean a death sentence for the patient, so they are prescribed with great caution.
Fluoroquinolones are not recommended for the treatment of angina in childhood and adolescence, due to the high risk of irreversible changes in cartilage tissues in the growing body.
Adult patients are not threatened.
There are two main contraindications: cerebral atherosclerosis and Allergy to the components of the composition. Tetracyclines
Obsolete drugs with a wide range of side effects.
They are used only and exclusively in identifying the sensitivity of microorganisms to the active substance, when other groups of antibacterial agents are ineffective.
A kind of backup option (reserve drugs) with the inefficiency of all of the above medicines.
They are prescribed in the form of injections and only in severe tonsillitis, provoked by polyresistant and mixed microflora, complicated by purulent processes and a high risk of sepsis.
Titles: "Meropenem", "Imipenem". Not combined with other -lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), neurotoxic (provoke tremors and seizures).
Amoxicillin is a strong antibiotic of penicillin series, one of the most often prescribed for streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, besides the cheapest: the price of 70 rubles for a package of 20 tablets.
The advantages are as follows:
High effectiveness. Effective against angina, the causative agent of which does not produce penicillinase, respectively, is not resistant to penicillin drugs. Well tolerated by patients, sparing the impact on the digestive system.
More than 90% of the active component is absorbed by the tissues of the body, indicating high bioavailability. Presented in different dosage forms: in addition to tablets for internal administration, pharmacies also have capsules, suspension and powder for its preparation, solutions for injection. You can choose the right tool for patients of all ages, as there are cheaper analogues of Amoxicillin as the active substance and pharmacological effect.